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Tuesday, 16 June 2020

The Biology

Blood Circulatory system is regarded as a kind of vascular system and therefore, it is called blood vascular system. A vascular system is that which has tubes full of fluids to be transported from one place to another. The blood vascular system comprises of Heart, the organ which pumps and receives the blood, and blood vessels, which are tubes through which the blood flows. Blood is mobile, reddish coloured fluid that circulates in blood vessels in the human body; supplies nutrients and oxygen to all the living cells and removes waste products and carbon It has two Components: Plasma and Blood Corpuscles. Blood corpuscles are of three types: red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles and blood platelets. Presence of oxygen carrying Haemoglobin pigment in red blood cells makes them looks red. Some of the important functions of the blood are as follows: 1. Circulation of blood is responsible for the transportation of soluble digested food from the small intestine to various parts of the body where they are stored or assimilated. Blood also carries glucose from Liver to the Muscles. 2. Blood carries soluble excretory materials, such as urea, to the organs of excretion. 3. Blood carries Hormones from the Endocrine glands to the target organs. 4. Circulation of blood helps to maintain a constant body temperature by distributing the excess heat from the deeply seated organs. 5. Blood transports oxygen from the Lungs to all parts of the body. In he blood, Oxygen combines with Haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin. When the blood reaches the tissues, Oxygen from Haemoglobin diffuses into the tissue cells where it is utilised to release energy in the form of ATP. 6. Blood caries carbon dioxide produced by the tissues to the lungs for breathing out. 7. Blood has a property of clotting which prevents excessive blood loss. 8. The white blood cells acts as a soldiers of the body by killing the bacteria and other germs. Thus, the blood protects our body from the attack of foreign bodies and disease causing pathogens. 9. The blood acts as a buffer and maintains a constant soluble potential and pH. When a tissue is wounded or a blood vessel is ruptured due to some injury, the blood flows through it. If not checked, it may cause an excessive loss of blood. Sometimes, this immense loss of blood even leads to death. However, the body has its own natural device of preventing the loss of blood by forming a "blood clot" which plugs the injury and stops further loss of blood, and also checks the entry of pathogenic microorganisms. The process of blood clotting is a complex process which is initiated and maintained by the platelets which circulates around the body along with other blood components. In the region of Injury, the platelets rupture and release a substance called Thromboplastin. Vitamin K is essential for the formation of prothrombin in liver. Thrombin then changes soluble fibrinogen protein into fibrin. The latter undergoes rapid polymerization to form long fibres. The fibres form a network over the damaged region, entrap blood corpuscles and form a blood clot. We have just studied that the blood is an important medium which carries the required substances to carious organs of the body. The blood circulates round the body and reaches each and every organ throughout the blood circulatory system, which consists of the heart and the blood vessels. The blood vessels are elastic muscular tubes which carry blood. There are three kinds of blood vessels in the human body: Arteries are the thick walled blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart for distribution to the body. The walls of arteries, particularly those near the heart, are thick that enables them to dilate but not rupture when the heart contracts and forces blood into them. Thus, the blood passing through narrow lumen of arteries is aerated and has a considerable pressure. Veins are thin walled blood vessels which brings blood from the body back to the heart. They are larger and hold more blood than the arteries. The blood passing through wide lumen of veins is nonaerated and has low pressure. The veins have valves that allow the blood to flow only towards the heart and prevent the backflow. Capillaries are thin walled and extremely narrow which faciliates the exchange of food material, gases and waste products. The Heart is a hollow, muscular organ, roughly of the size of our 'clenched fist' that contacts regularly and continuously pumps blood to various parts of the body. Its average weight is about 300 grams in males-and about 250 grams in females. It is reddish brown in colour and somewhat conical in form. The heart is situated between the two lungs in the middle of the thoracic cavity. It is surrounded by a tough, two layered sac, the pericardium. The pericardial fluid is secreted in the pericardial cavity between the pericardium and heart which reduces the friction between the heart wall and surrounding tissues when the heart is beating. It is divided by septa into two halves: the right and the left. Each half consists of two communicating chambers: upper smaller auricle or atrium and lower larger ventricle. Thus, the heart has 4 chambers : The two upper chambers, called atria and two lower chambers called ventricles. There are valves between left atrium and left ventricle and between right atrium and right ventricle. These valves provides one-way passage and prevents the return of blood.

Friday, 13 December 2019

Mobile Phones


Mobile phones as we all know has become a daily part of our lifestyle. There is no person in this world who is not familiar with mobiles. They have become a part of our lifestyle. Infact, there is much more information in our phones rather than our personal diaries. This information can range from our heart beat in fitness apps to our daily choices of lifestyle including foods, shelter etc, from our friends to relatives, from saved passwords of social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram etc to our details of Bank Accounts. 

The trend of Newspapers has become outdated. Mobile phones can keep you update with latest news irrespective of your location and time of day. Newspaper manufacturing requires labour, paper, ink, electricity etc which is quite costlier as compared to newsfeed section of Mobile Phones. One more advantage of Mobile phones over Newspaper is that it can get you updated with your favourite topics instantly at your couch.

Tuesday, 26 November 2019




No matter where you go, No matter how much people earn, No matter what their political systems are; the hands of corruption are to found everywhere. In many ways it seems that corruption is the norm and not an exception. Corruption has become a way of life. In a nutshell, corruption is a very big and a powerful idea which harms the society. On a daily basis people die at hospitals because they don't have enough money to afford medication, schools collapse because building regulations are not respected or school are not even built in the first place because the funds mysteriously disappear.

Many new initiatives are coming from around the world to free the society from the deadly hands of corruption. These initiatives can range from international conventions to criminal court systems etc. These initiatives helps to create a world which is more transparent and more accountable.

Corruption takes birth in society when it's citizens fails to believe that the nation is a common property of all it's citizens and future generations. Corruption is one of the greatest evil which shakes the backbone of any society.

It starts at a personal level, often with a small isolated act. Slowly it gets converted into a habit of individual and when others starts copying it becomes a systematic corruption, that can seriously harm the nation. There can be many forms of corruption such as bribe, black-marketing and deliberately enhancing prices of products etc. It is a corrosion that slowly eats away a society like a rust on an Iron bridge; the bridge does not fell immediately but when it does, it is irrepairable.

Corruption is an opportunity for those who want to make money at any cost. Corruption involves the misuse of public power by elected politicians for their private advantage. Corruption is increasing in countries because their is a very strong link between officials, politicians and criminals which are making their country weak and vulnerable.

Corruption is rampant in all spheres of life in our society; whether it comes to defence deals of nations to contracts of land mining. Billion dollars of black money gets stashed in Swiss banks in seconds, corruption is eating the vitals of the country. And that is the real reason why the common man on streets is afraid of police, the sales tax office, the mining mafia and so on. The most dangerous face of this menace is reflected between a corrupt politician and a corrupt bureaucrat.

Increase in corruption levels can reduce foreign investments per capita. Corruption can also discourage people from paying taxes, when they perceive that their taxes are going into wrong pockets. This simply means less money for government to invest in industrial sector which is crucial for economic growth. Today corruption has spread it's roots from education to sports, from politics to business. Corruption has become a part of all the imaginable fields in the country.

As per me, the root cause behind increasing levels of corruption are:


Greed is the supreme cause of corruption. People often become corrupt because of their insatiable greed for easy money. Newspapers are full of scams worth crore of rupees. And finally, one's extreme attachment to one's family makes one often feel that one has to earn enough for children and grandchildren.


Citizens should feel free to complain against top officials of government department for corruption charges. Society should never tolerate amassing of wealth by any method, right or wrong.

The monster of corruption has spread it's tentacles in all walks of life. The louder the noise against the evil of corruption, the wider the tentacles it spreads as if with a retribution.

If democracy has to survive, the middle class value of moral principles have to be sustained. If each one of us refuses to offer bribes, however small, corrupt officials will have to back down eventually and then only this vicious circle can be broken.

Here are some ways to fight against Corruption?


Empowering Media is a top priority to fight back Corruption. Politicians and government officials should be well aware of the fact that they are always under the eyes of common people.


People should be severely punished for involving in corrupt activities. People should be aware of the harsh punishments they have to face if they involve in Corruption.


Keeping in view about the problems of increasing population, special courts should be set up for fast approval of pending corrupt matters.


Wednesday, 30 October 2019

TOMATO - The Wonder Fruit



Whenever you see or think of Tomatoes, what ideas come to your mind? Whether, it is a fruit or vegetable? It's skin, flesh, pulp, seeds are used in various different sectors. As you read along this article, you will find out how useful they are for the Mankind.



Tomatoes hold beauty around the world in terms of their Nutritional content and applications in different fields. Tomatoes are rich in Enzymes, Minerals, Vitamins, Anti-Oxidants (Lycopene), which makes it even more beneficial for Mankind. These Anti-Oxidants actually helps in fighting free radicals which enters our body via  smoking or Pollution in our Environment, alcohol and sugary stuff's in our diet. Eating Tomatoes helps to balance anti-oxidants in body.

Tomato, an easily available fruit of daily use is also used as salad. Tomato is used to make the Vegetables tastier and to prepare nice meat. It is full of medicinal properties and it is a handy home remedy too.

According to recent studies, the ammounts of Vitamins (A,B and C) found in Tomato are not to be found in Oranges and Grapes. They contain Proteins, Carbohydrates, Calcium, Iron and several other mineral salts. It contains a lot of lime strengthens the bones and also promote the growth of skeletal system in childrens. A glass of Tomato juice taken twice a day reduces the shortage of blood in our body. Tomato contain five times more Iron than that of Eggs. It's all because of the profusion of vitamins and minerals in Tomatoes, a popular saying goes that, " The Use of Tomato keeps the Doctor away".

Tomato is a family doctor to cure many Diseases.

Tomato as a beauty aid

The use of Tomato is very essential for the strength of Teeth and Bones. A spoonful of Tomato juice given 2-3 times a day to children's facilitates their teething. It is also used for the treatment of rickets in children's. Hence, regular use of Tomato juice makes the children strong and healthy.

Tomato juice taken 3-4 times a Day cures the skin. It acts as a great blood purifier. It removes the inflammation of bones in the mouth and stops the bleeding of the teeth. 


Tomato juice is acidic in nature, so it can reduce the chances of diabetes in humans because acidic solutions reduces the quantity of sugar in urine. Tomato is also used to cure boils in the mouth. Boils in the mouth can be cured by gargling with tomato juice mixed with water.

Tomato is very useful for shedding some extra Kilos (Fat) from the body. Obesity can be removed by taking Onion and Tomato sprinkled with rock salt. It's regular use generally reduces obesity and cures Constipation. A glass of tomato mixed with honey and taken everyday on an empty stomach strengthens the liver and the lungs. It's regular use brightens the complexion and protects the skin against many disorders.

For the facial beauty, mix the tomato juice with honey having equal quantities. Apply it on the face twice everyday, wash the face properly after half an hour of it's application. It's regular use removes wrinkles from the face and hence face becomes bright. The Tomato juice removes the dust particles from complexion. To remove the facial freckles and Dark Circles around the eyes, apply the paste prepared with a spoonful each of Tomato juice and Lemon juice mixed with half spoon of turmeric and spoonful of gram flour. This paste removes the darkness around eyes and brings glow, freshness and softness to face.


1. People often suffer from Diarrhea because of excessive consumption of tomato in their diet.

2. Tomato juice is highly acidic. It can cause harm to gastro-intestinal tract if taken in large amounts at a time.

3. Tomato is rich in Potassium levels and can cause trouble to patients who are suffering from kidney related problems. Higher content of oxalate in tomato juice leads to generation of kidney stones. Hence, doctors advice their patients to minimise their tomato consumption.

4. Tomato soup contains high levels of sodium which is harmful for anyone. High levels of Sodium can increase blood pressure.

5. As per latest studies, excessive consumption of tomatoes can worsen migraine conditions.


Monday, 21 October 2019




The term "Environment" can be defined as a structural and functional unit of the biosphere, consisting of living organisms and Non-living environment. Environment comprises of a self-supporting system, which maintains a steady continuous energy flow among the food chains.

Today, Environmental pollution threatens the very existence of the whole world. 

If environment pollution is not checked immediately, we may see irreversible changes on Earth like drastic changes in climates and the crop cycle, frequent changes in weather conditions and what not. Human science and technology departments do not have ways and means to save Mankind from disasters that are only waiting to happen.

The need of the hour is to rethink our industrial policies and plan afresh our habitation with emphasis on lightening burden on natural resources through reduction in population and judicious use of available resources. Deforestation should be stopped and reckless combustion of fuels like wood, coal and kerosene should be controlled. We must adopt strategies for the sustainable all-round growth without harming nature. Afforestation should be promoted at massive scales. We should not disturb the ecological balance if we wish to continue to be the crowning glory of God's Creation. Otherwise, we may be ushering in Doomsday much too soon for us and for other species, who have no role to play in our acts of Injustice towards the Nature.


Some ways to protect Environment are:

1. Turning off water supply while brushing your teeths can save upto 28 Gallons of water in a month.

2. Turn off Lights and fans when not in use. Always remember to remove gadget from electrical power points. 


3. Try to car pool, walk or take public transportation. Lesser the number of cars running on streets, lesser will the carbon emission, thereby leading to fall in pollution levels.

4. Stop using plastic bags as they are Non- Biodegradable. Try to opt reusable bags for marketing.

               "SAY NO TO PLASTIC"

5. Use paper wisely. We can save trees from being cut down by using paper wisely. Always use scrap paper for drawing. Use both sides of paper before switching to new one.

Monday, 14 October 2019



Labrador Retriever is one of the most popular dog breed in the whole world. These dogs are emotionally attached to their owners. Labradors have Water-resistant double coat which keeps them well insulated in cold water. They are quite good runners and hence they are known for their sprinting ability. They can acquire a great speed of 12 Miles/Hours in just 3 seconds. Their coat colour can be brown, white or chocolate brown as per genetics.

Fisherman use this dog breed to catch fish and carry fishing equipments from one place to another. They can be trained to identify the early stages of cancer in patients. They come under the category of family and guide dog because of their friendly nature. They are also used as Bomb-sniffers.

Labradors are highly intelligent, gentle, trusting, tempered, kind and have very friendly nature. Their lifespan can vary from 10-14 years. They are quite intelligent dogs and can easily pass basic training.

Some things to remember before      buying Labradors:

1. Regular Walks.

Always remember to give them 2-3 times walk in a day, as they tend to gain fat faster as per their genetics. Do not buy them if you have a busy schedule.

2. Nutrition.

Labradors are Food lovers. Do not give them sugary stuff's as it may result in Tooth problems and can even lead to Diabetic conditions in them.

3. Regular checkups.

Labradors are highly prone to skin allergy, cancer and fungal infections because of their highly sensitive skin. Hence, they should be taken to vets regularly for diagnosis.

Monday, 7 October 2019

The Kohinoor Diamond

The Kohinoor Diamond

In India, there was some such legacy in the sense of gratification and objectification, which was not only valuable but also used to describe the creation and affinity of India in that period.

             "The Era of 16th Century"

The mines of South Africa and Brazil were not discovered in 16th Century. India was famous for its Golconda Mine ( Andhra Pradesh, India) in terms of diamonds. Most of the diamonds discovered from these mines are adding beauty to the foreign museums. The famous old, precious Kohinoor Diamond was also discovered from this mine. The description of this diamond can also be found in ancient Sanskrit books. According to traditional hindi scripts, this diamond can curse the man wearing it, hence it should always be wore by women.


Kohinoor diamond was the oldest diamond in 1304 under the authority of the king  of Malwa. In the year 1339, this diamond was kept in the city of Samarkand for quite some time.

In 14th century, the diamond reached the hands of Alauddin Khilji (Ruler of Delhi). In 1526 Babur illustrated in his biography "Baburnama" that Humayun (Son of Babur) took over the wealth of Agra fort by defeating Ibrahim lodi. This diamond was then passed among the descendants of Humayun upto 17th century.

In 17th century, Shah Jahan engraved this diamond on his peacock throne. He gave this diamond to a jeweller (Hortensho Borgia) of Venice city to enhance it's lustre. However, Borgia broke the diamond into many pieces. (793 Carats ~ 186 Carats)

In 1739; King Nader Shah of Persia came to India and defeated the Mughal Emperor. He renamed it from "Babur's Diamond"  to  "Koh-e-Noor"  which means "Mountain Of Light". He was killed due to some political conflicts under his leadership. This diamond was then taken up by major general "Ahmed Shah Gurrani", who engraved it on to his bangle.

In 1813, Ahmed Shah son, Shah Shuja Gurrani was  in Lahore jail under the custody of the Sikhs. Sikh Maharaja Ranjit Singh starved the Gurrani family for basic requirements like food and water, until he handed over the diamond to M. Ranjit Singh.

In his will; M. Ranjit Singh announced to give the diamond to Odisha's Jagannath Puri Temple. 

In 1849, Britain won the second sikh war and took over the entire assets of M. Ranjit Singh as compensation of war. Lord Dalhousie took the diamond to London and gifted it to the director of  East India Company. The company in turn gifted it to Queen Victoria for financial profit. Queen Victoria decided to give the diamond a new look. In 1852, Dutch Jeweller "Canter" cut it into an Oval-Shaped diamond weighing 105.6 carats. Victoria engraved it into his crown along with 2000 diamonds into her crown. This diamond was passed among the descendants of Queen Victoria till now.